12. Movement



General procedures

 1. During the movement phase a player may move each eligible unit in any direction, up to the limits of the movement allowances of its stands.

 2. All movement that does not start or end in melee contact does not require a battle command. Units that are not in melee contact may move and maneuver freely.

 3. Movement rates are based on the type of troops and the weight of armor they bear. The movement rates are measured in inches and represent the normal distance each stand may move during a player's movement phase. (If a unit charges into melee it may move one-third farther using its charge bonus.)

 4. Players may pre-measure movement distances before moving their units.

 Basic movement rates

 1. The basic movement rates apply to most human and humanoid units. For guidelines on other creatures, refer to the rules on fantasy creatures. 

Unit type

Armor classes


Light infantry



Medium infantry



Heavy infantry



Light cavalry



Medium cavalry



Heavy cavalry



 2. The basic movement rates reflect speeds that units can maintain without becoming exhausted.

         Troops in heavy armor move more slowly than troops in light armor because of the weight and burden of their armor. They could move faster, but pushing them any harder would exhaust them. Thus the penalty they are paying for their heavy armor is their slow movement rate. When difficult terrain conditions slow them still further this again reflects their need to avoid exhaustion. Light troops are slowed by difficult terrain for the same reason.

 3. Movement backwards or sideways without a change of facing costs double: two inches for each inch moved.

 Changes of facing

 1. A change of facing is a turn by a unit, either to the right, left or rear.

 2. The movement cost of a change of facing is one inch for units with excellent and good discipline, since well-trained troops can execute changes of facing quickly.

 3. The movement cost of a change of facing is two inches for units with poor discipline. This represents the time wasted by a poorly trained unit.

 4. The movement cost of a change of facing is one inch for wild units. Wild troops are not well trained, but they are also not as restricted as other troops, who are arrayed in regular ranks and files.

 5. Summary 


Movement cost


1 inch


1 inch


2 inches


1 inch

 6. If a stand turns in place and it does not fit into the space available, the players should adjust its position to the closest practical arrangement. 

Terrain effects

 1. Terrain may affect movement by slowing units, as in the case of muddy ground, or by speeding units, as in the case of paved roads.

 2.  Terrain effects are summarized in the table below: 


Movement cost

Firm ground


Muddy ground



Doubled when moving uphill




Can only be crossed at a bridge or ford



Paved road


Dirt road

Halved when dry, treat as muddy ground when wet.


As for similar road

Brush, hedges




Dense trees

Impenetrable by formed troops

Field walls


3. Terrain effects are calculated on the basis of the distance covered.

        Example: a light infantry unit crossing a three inch wide river at a ford uses six inches of its twelve inch movement rate to cross the river, and has six inches of movement left. It uses three inches to cross some firm ground to reach a paved road. Because the road movement cost is halved, the unit can move six inches on the road.


 1. Units on the battlefield maneuver in organized military formations. There are five basic formations: line, column, circle, open order and mass.

 2. A unit is considered to be formed when all of its stands are touching each other. The exception is open order, where stands may be separated by small gaps.

 3. Line

         a. A line extends a force as widely as possible in an attempt to turn the enemy's flanks and to deny flank attacks to the enemy.

         b. A line moves deliberately when advancing. The need to keep the line straight during changes in direction and when crossing terrain obstacles causes slowing. (Since this will happen automatically, no special movement rules have been created to govern the differences between line and column.)

         c. When a line is stretched too thinly it can be more easily disrupted or broken when the unit is pushed back.

 4. Column

         a. Because it is not as wide as a line, a column generally moves forward more easily. A column is often used as an approach march formation before deployment into line.

         b. A column is vulnerable when facing a line because its flanks are easily turned and a smaller proportion of its troops can be brought to bear against the enemy.

 5. Circle

         a. A circle is formed for all around defense, with the stands of the unit arrayed so that they form a continuous loop with no flanks.

         b. Because the stands are facing in all directions, movement while maintaining the formation is difficult. Units arrayed in a circle move at one-third the movement rate of the slowest stand in the circle.

 6. Open order

         a. Open order is used to spread troops out across a wider area to cover more ground and deny easy passage to enemy forces. Open order also minimizes the number of stands damaged by area-effect magic spells.

         b. Open order is very vulnerable in melee combat because the gaps between stands can allow penetration by enemy units and flank attacks.

         c. Open order can only be used by units specially trained and designated as skirmishers.

         d. The stands of a unit in open order may be separated by a distance no greater than 2 inches between each stand.

 7. Mass

         a. Mass formations are used by troops who are poorly trained or who lack the confidence and cohesion to maintain linear formations.

         b. Units composed of levy troops must stay in mass formations

         c. A mass formation must be as deep as it is wide.

         d. Units in mass formations do not get a bonus for the depth of their formations when they check morale.

 Depth of formations

 1. Units in formation may receive a bonus for the depth of their formation when they check morale.

 2. When opposing units meet in melee contact the side that has the deeper formation gets a morale bonus. A +1 is added to the morale check of the unit.

 3. The bonus is only applicable to units that do not have enemy units attacking them from the flank or rear.

 4. These rules make it more likely that a deeper formation will be more stable and will push the enemy back.

 Moving through other units

 1. Units cannot move through enemy units. Units may only move through friendly units as a result of an adverse morale result.

 2. A stand may never move into or through a gap in an enemy line that is narrower than the stand's own width.


 1. This is a maneuver in which a unit rotates in place to change its alignment to the enemy or to pass through terrain features. A wheel may take place at any time during a unitís movement.

 2. The movement cost of this maneuver is calculated by measuring the distance on the outside of the turn.

 3. Measure the distance traveled by the outside corner of the stand that has to move the farthest.

 Limbering and unlimbering

 1. It takes one turn to limber or unlimber siege equipment and artillery pieces.

 2. Artillery pieces may not shoot in the turn in which they limber or unlimber.

 Forced march

 1. A forced march is used by a unit that is maneuvering or deploying. A forced march is used to cover a greater distance than usual at a sustained, faster rate.

 2. A unit may not use a forced march to launch a charge or enter melee contact. This is because troops who are making a forced march are not prepared for combat. Their weapons are sheathed, their shields are slung on their backs and their bows are cased. They are prepared for fast movement, not fighting.

 3. The stands of a unit making a forced march move at twice their normal movement rate.

4. Before a unit may make a forced march it must make a successful discipline check.

 5. If a unit makes a forced march each stand must suffer attrition and the unit must check for exhaustion.

 Forced march attrition

 1. Each unit that makes a forced march suffers from attrition. Attrition reduces a unit's effectiveness due to disorganization and straggling.

 2. The impact of attrition is represented by a direct loss of endurance points by each stand. Since the discipline level of a unit has a significant impact on disorganization and straggling, the loss of endurance points is lower for units with better discipline. 

Discipline level



-1 point


-2 points

Poor or wild

-4 points

 Forced march exhaustion

 1. After a unit makes a forced march the player must determine if the contingent suffers from exhaustion. Exhaustion reduces a unit's effectiveness due to fatigue, exertion and strain.

 2. The chance of suffering exhaustion is determined by a rolling a ten-sided die for the entire unit. If the number rolled falls in the range below, the unit is exhausted. 

Overall morale

Die roll




9 to 10


7 to 10

 3. An exhausted unit may not move during the next turn except in response to morale results.


 1.  A unit that is separated from its army will always try to regroup after it rallies, even if it is outside of the command range of its leader. This represents the natural cohesion of troops and their desire and ability to regroup.

 2. Until a unit rallies or makes a successful morale check, it will continue to move away from the fighting during the friendly movement phase each turn.

 3. A Firm or checked unit that gets separated from its army will move back toward the mass of its army unless it is in melee contact, held by magic or prevented by some other means.

 4. A shaken or Broken unit driven away from its army by a morale failure can regroup if it rallies or it makes a successful morale check. Then it can turn around and move back toward its army.

 5. Leader and character stands can easily regroup since they are not dependent upon the receipt of combat orders to move and fight.

 6. A unit will move back toward its brigade or army leader, whichever is closer. As soon as a regrouping unit enters the command range of its leader unit it may be given orders by that leader.

 7. If no leader is present, the unit will move back toward the largest grouping of other friendly units from its army. The unit will move directly toward the units it is rejoining. When it reaches them it may form up with them in any formation desired, as long as it does not exceed its movement allowance.


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