15. Hit/Miss Determination
1. Hit/miss determination is the procedure used to determine if a target is hit when a weapon fires. This procedure is used for all direct fire: shooting or releasing a weapon directly at an observed target. This type of fire is used by all weapons except artillery pieces that are utilizing indirect fire.
2. The process starts with a base number of 10. Conditions that affect the accuracy of the fire are factored as numbers, which are added to or subtracted from the base number to arrive at a total.
a. The total is the chance to successfully hit the target.
b. A ten-sided die is then rolled; if the number rolled is less than or equal to the total the target is hit.
3. Each point represents a 10% chance. Thus a total of 6 points represents a 60% chance to hit the target.
4. Because of life-form, electronic and mechanical error the maximum chance to hit a target is 90% no matter how high the total arrived at above.
This rule represents the effect of intangible factors that cannot be captured on a wargame table: the perspiration fogging the eyepiece of the laser cannon, the tension of being shot at too many times, the dust and smoke drifting across the battlefield, the heat haze rising from pavement baking in the sun.
a. Players are free to make exceptions to this rule when circumstances seem to warrant, as in the case where a piece is firing at point blank range under ideal circumstances, and a miss results.
b. Players should decide whether they will make exceptions to this rule before the game begins, if possible, rather than when a questionable situation arises. If both players do not agree to make exceptions the rule should stand as given above.
1. For direct fire a piece must have a straight, unobstructed line of sight to the target. The piece does not have to be able to see the entire target. Hit/miss factors are applied to reduce the chance of hitting the target when only a portion of it is in sight.
2. Generally, an infantryman can see everything within a 180-degree arc to his front. A trooper is assumed to be facing in the direction his eyes are facing, no matter which way his weapon is pointing.
3. For gun crews and weapon teams, the facing is considered to be the direction in which the weapon is pointing.
4. For vehicle weapons, the facing is considered to be the direction in which the weapon is pointing. (In cases where the weapons on models are fixed in place and cannot be moved, the players may indicate their facing with small markers if they feel this is helpful.)
1. The conditions that are factored into the hit/miss determination are listed below. They are listed with their numerical ratings on the Hit/Miss Determination chart.
2. Range – The closer the target, the better the chance to hit it. Accuracy diminishes as range increases.
3. Movement – Movement by the firing piece affects accuracy more than movement by the target.
a. The more concealment a target has, the more difficult it is to hit.
b. Players will have to estimate the amount of targetconcealment. The following illustrations are offered to provide a general visual reference to where the boundaries fall when determining the concealment of a target.
c. The shape of a target must be taken intoconsideration when estimating the amount of the target concealment.
d. The attacker must be able to see part of the targeted piece. If the cannon of a tank or the barrel of the soldier’s weapon is the only thing visible the piece cannot be targeted. However, the attacker could extrapolate the target’s position and fire at the suspected location of the target using the rules for firing on concealed targets.
5. Weapon mode
a. Beam and single shot weapons have a 0 factor because they do not have any particular advantages.
b. Automatic and pulse weapons have a +1 factor because of their higher rates of fire.
(Mini-rocket launchers also gain this bonus because they fire a cluster of missiles that results in multiple impacts.)
c. Rotary automatic weapons have a +3 factor because of their extremely high rates of fire.
d. Guided weapons have a +2 factor because they are assisted by laser designation or other target illumination.
e. Smart weapons have a +3 factor due to their enhanced tracking and targeting abilities.
6. Detection system – A vehicle or weapon with a detection enhancement system will receive an advantage when firing. Refer to the Detection rules for more information.
7. Combat effects – An attacker who is taking enemy interceptive or suppressive fire will not shoot as accurately. An attacker suffering from adverse morale effects will not shoot as accurately.
8. Targeting ability – The damage taken by a vehicle’s targeting system will affect its accuracy.
9. Target size
a. Larger targets are easier to hit than smaller targets, so the factors increase as the targets increase in size.
b. Sizes are determined by roughly determining the cubic inches that the target occupies. To determine cubic inches multiply length times width times height. For example, a hover tank that is 6 inches long, 4 inches wide and 3 inches high occupies 72 cubic inches.
c. Human-sized and smaller infantry are considered to be size 0 because they are smaller than one cubic inch.
d. The following scale is used to determine the sizes of vehicles, strongpoints and buildings.
e. When determining sizes, players are advised to simplify the process by dropping the fractions from their measurements, rounding the numbers up or down to the nearest whole number. Any amount less than one inch should be rounded to one inch to avoid multiplying by zero.
f. Players who want to avoid the calculations may find it helpful to buy one inch wooden cubes at a craft store. These can be laid out in a pattern approximating the shape of a vehicle. Counting them up and referring to the table above produces the vehicle size.
10. Some weapons, such as mortars, howitzers and other artillery pieces, can fire at targets which they themselves cannot see. Indirect fire procedures are used for these attacks. Refer to the rules on indirect fire.
11. For purposes of missile fire, vehicles which are within 4 inches of the ground are considered surface targets. Vehicles that are greater than 4 inches from the ground are considered air targets. This clarification is for use when choosing air-to-air, air-to-surface, surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missiles.
12. An abbreviated hit/miss determination procedure is given in the Hit/miss Determination chart for convenience. Players should find it sufficient for purposes of play once they are familiar with the game system.
1. To avoid disputes among players some sets of rules require that a piece fire at the closest enemy piece. In reality this is not always possible. For example, a trooper may not be able to detect the closest enemy soldier because of the amount of concealment he has. The following general guidelines may help players avoid arguments.
2. An enemy piece must first be detected to be fired on. If more than one enemy piece is detected by a piece the owning player must determine which one he will have his piece fire on. If the firing piece has more than one weapon, or has a weapon with a blast area that will cover more two or more targets, he may attempt to fire upon multiple targets.
3. A trooper would probably fire at the enemy that poses the greatest threat to him.
a. This might be an enemy soldier at closer range than others, or an enemy that just fired at the trooper.
b. The decision might be based on the lethality of the weapons the enemy soldiers are carrying. For example, a trooper facing two enemy soldiers at the same range would choose to target the soldier with a heavy flamer over the soldier with a sonic rifle. An armored vehicle crew would prioritize enemies equipped with antitank weapons.
c. A higher priority might be placed on an enemy that is an obviously greater threat to friendly troops and vehicles, such as a soldier with a missile launcher.
4. The context of a situation will also determine the action taken.
a. An armored vehicle crew might have to ignore an enemy soldier equipped with an antitank weapon if the situation required it to concentrate its firepower on other enemy infantrymen to prevent them from overrunning a friendly position.
b. A light laser cannon crew might have to ignore advancing infantry to concentrate on its primary target, an enemy armored vehicle.
5. In the end it is up to the owning player to determine which targets his pieces will fire upon.
Hit/Miss Determination Chart